Carl Rogers

When I read and went through Carl Rogers, (1902 - 1987) works, who is well known for The Person-centered approach (i.e., Client-centered therapy). Out of many concepts, what I liked is he says that humans are basically good and the fully functioning person.
I hope that, if I have these concepts very strongly i. humans are basically good, in my personality, I can build-up very good relationships to myself and to others and to various aspects of life.
 If I have the fully functioning person’s personality, I could lead a life of  the "fully functioning person" I can be open to experience, able to live existentially, trusting in my own organism, expresses feelings freely, acts independently, creatively and lives a richer life; "the good life". From his explanation I also understood that the good life is not a state of being, but a dynamic process. It is a direction to a destination, and not a destination. It also involves the stretching and growing of becoming more and more of one's potentialities. It involves the courage to be. It means launching myself fully into the stream of life.
Let me explain in detail about the characteristics of a fully functioning person, openness to experience – they move away from defensiveness, an increasingly existential lifestyle – living each moment fully. This results in excitement, daring, adaptability, tolerance, spontaneity, and a lack of rigidity and suggests a foundation of trust. Increasing organismic trust – they trust their own judgment (right and wrong) and their ability to choose behavior that is appropriate for each moment. Freedom of choice –They believe that they play a role in determining their own behavior and so feel responsible for their own behavior. Creativity – they will feel more free, more creative in the way they adapt to their own circumstances without feeling a need to conform. Reliability and constructiveness – they can be trusted to act constructively. An individual who is open to all their needs will be able to maintain a balance between them. Even aggressive needs will be matched and balanced by intrinsic goodness in congruent individuals. A rich full life – he describes the life of the fully functioning individual as rich, full and exciting and suggests that they experience joy and pain, love and heartbreak, fear and courage more intensely.
Who will not like a good life? All the beings want to have a richer life, open, fruit full, free life. I too like to live such a life, a perfect life. The person one who chosen me said, “Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.” (Mt 5: 48).  Yes, to achieve this perfectness, fullness, richness and goodness in my life. I hope that I need to integrate the self theory of Carl Rogers in my personality.

Carl Rogers(85), (1902 - 1987), of American Nationality, who is well Known for The Self Theory - The Person-centered approach (e.g., Client-centered therapy & Student-centered learning)
Carl R. Rogers was the first and foremost a therapist, with an abiding respect for the dignity of persons and an interest in persons as subjects rather than objects. He developed a therapy called Clint Centered Therapy. It includes the techniques and basic Philosophy of counseling. In this he gives a clear exposition of procedures by which individuals who are being counseled may be assisted in achieving for themselves new and more effective personality adjustments.
Actualizing Tendency
Rogers believed that humans are basically good and he maintains that the human "organism" has an underlying "actualizing tendency", which aims to develop all capacities in ways that maintain or enhance the organism and move it toward autonomy. This tendency is present in all living beings. It is the only motive force in the theory. It encompasses all motivations; tension, need, or drive reductions; and creative as well as pleasure-seeking tendencies. Each person thus has a fundamental mandate to fulfill their potential. The inherent potentialities of the actualizing tendency can suffer distorted expression when maladjustment occurs, resulting in behavior destructive to oneself and others.
The Self
The human organism's "phenomenal field" includes all experiences available at a given moment, both conscious and unconscious. As development occurs, a portion of this field becomes differentiated and this becomes the person's "self". The "self" is a central construct in this theory. It develops through interactions with others and involves awareness of being and functioning. It is based largely on the social evaluations he/she has experienced.
The "self"  is described as: the organized, consistent, conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of the "I" or "me" and the perceptions of the relationships of the "I" or "me" to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached to these perceptions.
The difference between Congruence (fully functioning person) & Incongruence (maladjusted person)
"fully functioning person" who is open to experience and able to live existentially, is trusting in his/her own organism, expresses feelings freely, acts independently, is creative and lives a richer life; "the good life" the good life which is a process not a state of being.
The maladjusted individual is defensive, rather than enhancing his life, lives according to a preconceived plan, feels manipulated rather than free, and is common and conforming rather than creative. His self becomes more disturbed due to others evaluations.
He will be completely defense-free, open to experience, creative and able to live "the good life".
He will feel a threat that evokes anxiety and may have mental and emotional problems that leads to unacceptable behavior.
Balance between the self and organism
Break between the self and organism
person’s will have a good relationship with other people.
Affects a person’s relationship with other people.
Congruence between self and experience leads to better personality adjustment and less defensiveness.
Incongruence is that the rift between self and experience as natural.

Tom gets poor mark in his exams. He know that his mother will beat him so out of fear he corrects his mark statement. And also this shows his actual self and what he would like to be. He was not able to achieve the Ideal self so it leads him to incongruent.  
Tom, a young good boy, who had a joyful childhood speaking to a doctor. His fear and anxiety starting from school made him to do many bad things continually. Now he approaches doctor to have a good life and he wanted to become a fully functioning person.

Yoga Philsophy

I.  Yoga Philsophy
- Concerned with human suffering and pain. How human beings can be free from suffering.
- Related to how the practices proceed to self realization/realization of truth.
- Causes of Suffering
i) Ignorance – Avidya
ii) Ego – Asmita
iii) Likes – Raga
iv) Dislikes – Dwesha
v) Fear of death – Bhaye.
II. Psychic Physiology – How chakra (energy centre) are influencing human personality.
III. Five kosas or layers of human personality. How the holistic integration can be achieved.
IV. What is Yoga. History of Yoga and its relevance today.
V. Methods in Yoga for oneness/harmony
1. Asanas
A) Pawan Muktasna Part I (Anti-Rheumatic group)
- Excellent for those with rheumatism, arteritis, high blood pressure, heart problems, etc.
- Very useful practices for eliminating energy blockages in the joints and the anti extremities of the physical body.
i. Padanguli naman (toe bending)
ii) Goolf Naman (Ankle bending)
iii) Goolf Chakra (Ankle rotation)
iv) Janu Naman (Knee bending)
v) Asdha Titali (Half butterfly)
vi) Poorna Titali (full butterfly)
vii) Mushtika Bandana (hand clenching)
viii) Manibandha Naman (wrist bending)
ix) Manibandha Chakra (wrist joint-rotation)
x) Kehuni Namam (elbow bending)
xi) Skandha Chakra (shoulder socket rotation)
xii) Greeva Sanchalana (Neck movements)
B) Pawan Mukta Sana Part 2 (Digestive/Abdominal group)
Excellent for those persons suffering from indigestion, constipation, acidity, excess gas, lack of appetite, diabetes, disorders of the male or female reproductive system.
i) Chakra Padasana (leg rotation)
ii) Pada Sanchalana (cycling)
iii) Supta Pawan Muktasana (leg lock pose)
iv) Jhulana Lurhakanasana (rocking and rolling)
v) Supta Udara Karshanasana (sleeping abdominal stretch pose)
vi) Nankasana (boat pose)
C) Pawan Muktasana Part 3
Shakti Bandhana Asana (energy block postures)
- Excellent for breaking down neuro-muscular knots, especially in the pelvic negron where energy tends to stagnate. This group of practices are especially useful for those with reduced vitality and stiff back.
i) Gatyakmak Meru Vakrasana (dynamic spinal twist)
ii) Chakki Chalanasana (churning the mill)
iii) Namka Sanchalana (rowing the boat)
iv) Kamachalana (crow walking)
v) Udarakarshanasana (abdominal stretch pose)
D) Yoga Exercises for the Eyes
i) Palming
ii) Rotational Viewing
iii) Nasikagra Drishti (preliminary nose tip gazing)
E) Relaxation Asanas
i) Shavasana
ii) Makrasana
F) Meditation Asanas
i) Sukhasana (easy pose)
ii) Ardha Padmasana (half lotus pose)
iii) Padmasana (lotus pose)
iv) Sidhasana
G) Vajrasana Group
This group of practices are beneficial for the reproductive as well as digestive organ. May control the vajranadi thereby one is helped to sublimate and control sexual energy.
i) Vajrasana (thunderbold pose)
ii) Ananda madirasana (intoxicating bliss pose)
iii) Simha gayanasana (roaring lion pose)
iv) Marjani-asana (cat stretch pose)
v) Vyaghrasana (tiger pose)
vi) Shashankasana (hare pose)
vii) Shashank bhujangasana (striking cobra pose)
viii) Pranamasana (bowing pose)
ix) Ushtrasana (Camel pose)
H) Stading Asanas
These practices strengthen back, shoulders and leg muscles
i) Akarna Dhamurasana (bow and arrow pose)
ii) Tadasana (palm tree pose)
iii) Triiyaka Tadasana (swaying palm tree pose)
iv) Kati Chakrasana (waist rotating pose)
v) Uttarasana (squat and rise pose)
vi) Dwiko nasana (double angle pose)
vii) Thrikonasana (triangle pose)
viii) Utthita Wolasana (swaying while standing pose)
I) Suryanamaskar (Salutation to sun – spiritual consciousness)
It is an effective practice for loosening up, stretching, massaging and toning all the joints, muscles and internal organs of the body. It can be made as a complete sadhana, spiritual practice, when it includes asana, pranayama, mantra and meditation technique.
J) Padmasana Group
These asanas clear physical, emotional and mental blocks. Helps awaken the energy centres of the body and induce tranquility
i) Yoga Mudrasana (Psychic union pose)
ii) Matsyasana (Fish pose)
K) Backward Bending Asanas
These are postures which turn the body and to face the world. They are stimulating and extroverting because they expand the chest and encourage inhalation, they are associated with the attitude of embracing life.
            On a physical level, the backward bending asana stretch the abdominal muscles and tone and strengthen the muscle which controls the spine, helping to prevent problems of back pains, slipped disc, etc.
i) Sphinx asana
ii) Bhuyangasana (cobra pose)
iii) Tiryaka bhuyangasana (twisting cobra pose)
iv) Ardha Shalabhasana (half locust pose)
v) Poorna Shalabhasana (full locust pose)
vi) Sanal Dhanurasana (easy bow pose)
vii) Dhanurasana (bow pose)
viii) Kandharasana (shoulder pose)
ix) Chakrasana (Wheel pose)
L) Forward Bending Asanas
These asanas loosen up the back, maintaining good health and increasing vitality. During the forward bending asana each of the vertebra is separated, stimulating the nerves, improving circulation around the spine and nourishing the spinal cord. These group of asanas is also very important for making the back muscles supple and strong, compressing and massaging the abdominal organs, including the liver, kidneys, pancreas and intestines and stretching the leg muscles and tandem.
i) Paschimothasana (back stretching pose)
ii) Gatyatmak Paschimottasanas (dynamic back stretch pose)
iii) Padahastasana (forward bending pose)
iv) Dynamic forward bending pose.
M) Spinal Twisting Asanas
The twist imposed in the spine and the whole trunk exercises the muscles, makes the spinal column more flexible and stimulates spinal nerves. It also has a strong influence on the abdominal muscles. These practices nourish organs such as the pancreas, kidneys, stomach, small intestines, liver and gall bladder, relieves associated disorders and rejuvenates the tissues generally.
i) Meru Wakrasana (spinal twist)
ii) Ardha Matsenchasana (Half spinal twist)
N) Inverted Asanas
Inverted asanas reverse the action of gravity on the body; instead of everything pulled towards the feet, the orientation shift towards the head. Similarly, on the emotional and psychic levels, inverted asanas turn everything upside down, throwing a new light on old patterns of behavior and being. Generally these practices improve health, reduce anxiety and stress, and increase self-confidence. They also increase mental power, concentration and the capacity to sustain large work-loads without strain.
            Inverted asanas encourage a rich supply of blood to flow to brain, nourishing the neurons and flushing out toxins.
            Traditionally, inverted asanas are used to sublimate and transform sexual energy into spiritual energy. The aim of the practices, in this context, is to stimulate the chakras, open Sushumna nadi and unleash kundalini to bring about psychic awakening.
i) Vipareeta karani Asana (inverted pose)
ii) Sarvangasana (shoulder stand pose)
iii) Halasana (plough pose)
iv) Sirshasana (head stand pose)
O) Balancing Asanas
Balancing asanas develops the cerebellum, the brain centre that controls how the body works in motion. These asanas induce physical balance, stilling unconscious movement. As well as inducing physical balance, this group of practices develops balanced mind and a more motion outlook on life.
i) Eka pada pranamasana (one-legged prayer pose)
ii) Garudasana (eagle pose)
2. Pranayama
Generally people understand pranayama as breath control. But this may not be the full meaning as the effect of the practice is concerned. The word pranayama comes from the roots ‘prana’ plus ‘ayama.’ Prana means vital energy or life force. Therefore, the word pranayama means expansion of the dimension of prana. The practice of pranayama is introduced in order to activate and balance prana so that one goes beyond the normal boundaries or limitations and attain higher state of vibratory energy.
i) Yogic breathing
ii) Kapalabats
iii) Nadishodana
iv) Brahman
v) Ujjai
3. Bandha                      
The word bandha means ‘to hold,’ ‘light’ or ‘lock.’ Bandhas are to lock the prana at particular areas and redirect their flow into Sushumna nadi (channel of flow located in spinal cord) for the purpose of spiritual awakening.
There are four bandhas: Jalandhana, Moola, Uddiyana and Maha.
4. Mudra
The Sanskrit word mudra is translated as ‘gesture’ or ‘attitude.’ Mudras can be described as psychic, emotional, devotional and aesthetic gestures or attitudes. Mudras are combination of subtle physical movements which alter mood, attitude and perception and which deepens awareness and concentration.
5. Shatkarma
Shatkarma consists of six groups of purification practices. Each ……shatkarmas were the major practices of the hatha yoga. They were practiced to purify the body and its elements in order to achieve harmony between the two major pranic flows, ida and pingala. This harmony ensure the easy progress in spiritual path. The six shatkarmas are:
a) Neti: a process of cleasing and purifying the nasal passage.
i) Jala neti and
ii) Sutra neti
b) Dhauti: techniques for cleansing the entire alimentary canal from mouth to anus.
i) Shankha prakshadlana (cleansing the intestine)
ii) Agnisar kriya, activating the digestive fire.
iii) Kunja, cleansing the stomach with water.
c) Nauli: Method of massaging and strengthening the abdominal organs.
d) Basti: Techniques for washing and toning the large intestine.
e) Kapalabati: a breathing technique for purifying the frontal region of the brain
f) Trataka: the practice of intense gazing at one point or object which develops the power of concentration.
6. Meditation
In order to understand meditation one has to understand one’s mind. We may see our mind has got three levels such as low, middle and high. The lower mind is concerned with the various activities of body such as respiration, circulation, digestion, etc., and the instinctive urges, complexes, phobias and so on.
            The middle min analyses, compares and reaches conclusion in relation to incoming data. This is the realm of rational intellectual thinking and also the collective unconscious.
            The higher mind is the area of the so called super-conscious activity. It is the source of intuition, inspiration, bliss and transcendental experiences.
            Behind all these parts of the mind is the Self or the very core of existence. It is the Self that illuminates everything that we do, though we are not aware of it. Most of the people assume that the centre of our being is the ego, yet the ego is really no more than another part of the mind. It is the self that illuminate even the ego.
            What happens most of the people is that their awareness is stick with realities of the lower mind and middle mind. Higher state of meditation is not possible if one is not able to overcome the compulsions of the lower and middle mind.
            In the higher states of meditation the consciousness moves to the higher mind or the region of the super consciousness. The consciousness rises above the rational thought and or sees the activates that seem to closer to the reality. The meditator enters the dimensions of inspiration and illumination.
            The culmination of meditation is self realization. This occurs when the higher mind is transcended. The consciousness leaves the exploration of the mind and identifies with central core or one’s existence, the Self. At this point it becomes pure consciousness. When a person achieves Self realization it means that he has contacted his central being. Now he identifies his existence, his life from the view point of self not from the stand point of ego. “Not I but Christ lives in me” (St. Paul)
            According to Patanjali, “Meditation is an uninterrupted stream of the content of consciousness.
Types of Meditation
i) Tapa Yoga/Mantra Yoga
It is the union of Self through repetition of a tapa (rotation of consciousness)
Types of Tapa
a) Baukari (audible)
b) Upanshu (whispering)
c) Manasik (mental)
d) Wikhit (written)
ii) Ajapa jap
Japa becomes ajapajapa when the mantra or Japa automatically repeats itself without conscious effort
a) Body steadiness
b) Breath awareness
c) Psychic path visualization.
d) Rotation of breath and mantra  (SO-HA)
e) Ending the Practice
iii) Antarmonna
The word meaning of antarmanna is inner silence. In the actual practice it is a journey toward inner depth. In this practice the aspirant becomes aware of the inner silence as well as the inner noise which generally prevents one knowing the silence.
a) wareness of the senses and their objects
b) Awareness of the spontaneous thoughts
c) Awareness of inner silence.
d) Ending the practice.
Relaxation practice
i) Yoga Nicha
a) Preparation
b) Resolve
c) Rotation of Awareness
d) Breath Awareness
e) Object visualization
f) Resolve
g) Ending the practice
ii) Shavasana
a) Lie down on back
b) Awareness of breath/awareness of body parts
c) Ending the practice
Concentration Practice
1. Trataka
Sit in a meditation position, close the eyes and relax the eyes. Open the eyes gaze at a candle flame or any other object like flower, a black round against a white background or an image of ishta devata. When the eyes get strain, close the eyes and gaze at it in the close eyes. Relax the eyes and end the practice.
Different Types of Yoga
1. Hatha Yoga
2. Raga Yoga
- Patanjali Yoga/Ashtanga Yoga
3. Kundalini Yoga
4. Mantra Yoga
5. Karma Yoga
6. Bhakti Yoga
7. Jnana Yoga.